1 edition of Grade and tonnage relationships among copper deposits. by D.A. Singer [and others] found in the catalog.
Grade and tonnage relationships among copper deposits. by D.A. Singer [and others]
|Other titles||Geochemical exploration techniques applicable in the search in the search for copper deposits. by Maurice A. Chaffee|
|Contributions||Singer, D.A., Chaffee, M.A.|
Copper is usually found in nature in association with sulfur. Pure copper metal is generally produced from a multistage process, beginning with the mining and concentrating of low-grade ores containing copper sulfide minerals, and followed by smelting and electrolytic refining to produce a pure copper . Materials and energy are the interdependent feedstocks of economic systems, and thermodynamics is their moderator. It costs energy to transform the dispersed minerals of Earth's crust into ordered materials and structures. And it costs materials to collect and focus the energy to perform work — be it from solar, fossil fuel, nuclear, or other sources. The greater the dispersal of minerals.
The Global Inventory of metals is critically dependent on the inordinately large contributions made by relatively limited numbers of exceptionally endowed deposits, and copper is no exception (Singer, ; Laznicka, ).Indeed, approximately one-third of the world's defined copper resources are contributed by just seven districts (Fig. 1), and approximately % of producing mines currently. Copper 3 5Stockwork: network of many cross-cutting veins. 6Disseminated: small, fine-grained particles of ore mineral dispersed through a rock. 7Intrusion: a body of igneous rock emplaced into pre-existing rocks. 8Stratabound: an ore deposit that is confined to a single sedimentary bed or horizon. 9Sedimentary: rocks formed from material derived from other rocks by weathering.
Singer and Menzie and Singer describe an assessment method (Fig. 1b) for mineral method is based on the determination of three assessment parts: (1) maps of permissive tracts (PTs) wherein the resource has a probability of existing that is greater than ,, (2) grade-and-tonnage models that describe mineral content and deposit size, and (3) the estimated number of. LME price for high-grade copper United States. U.S. copper mine production 1,k mt Detailed statistics. Copper mine production in the U.S.
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PDF | On Jan 1,Singer and others published Grade and tonnage relationship among copper deposits | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. Three types of copper deposits-porphyry, strata-bound, and massive sulfide-are described, and the distributions of tonnages and grades for deposits are compared with normal and lognormal frequency distributions.
The relationships between grades and tonnages are analyzed by examining the correlation coefficients of these variables.
Singer, D.A. Grade and tonnage relationships among copper deposits (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: D A Singer; Maurice A Chaffee.
Singer, D. Grade and tonnage relationships among copper deposits (DLC) (OCoLC) Material Type: Document, Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File: All Authors / Contributors.
Grade and Tonnage Relationships Among Copper Deposits By D. SINGER, DENNIS P. COX, and LAWRENCE J. DREW GEOLOGY AND RESOURCES OF COPPER DEPOSITS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER A.
The purpose of this publication is to make this kind of information available in digital form for porphyry copper deposits. The consistently defined deposits in this file provide the foundation for grade and tonnage models included here and for mineral deposit density models (Singer and others, Singer.
and higher in copper grade than the other deposits in the. relationships among the variables. The correlations among Singer, D.A.,Grade and tonnage model of Sierran. The Distributions and Relationships of Grade and Tonnage Among Some Nickel Deposits By M.
FOOSE, W. MENZIE, D. SINGER and J. HANLEY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER An analysis of the relationships of grade and tonnage among several types of nickel deposits. Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits of the World: Deposit Models and Database By Dennis P.
Cox1, David A. Lindsey2 Donald A. Singer1, Barry C. Moring1, and Michael F. Diggles1 Including: Descriptive Model of Sediment-Hosted Cu 30b.1 by Dennis P. Cox1 Grade and Tonnage Model of Sediment-Hosted Cu by Dennis P.
Cox1 and Donald A. Singer1 Descriptive Model of Reduced-Facies Cu 30b.2 By. Construction of grade and tonnage models involves several steps, the first of which is the identification of a group of well-explored deposits that are believed to belong to the mineral deposit.
Grade and Tonnage Relationships Among Copper Deposits By D. SINGER, DENNIS P. COX, and LAWRENCE J. DREW GEOLOGY AND RESOURCES OF COPPER DEPOSITS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER A An analysis of the relationships between grades and tonnages of three types of copper deposits porphyry, massive sulfide, and strata-bound.
The number of deposits grouped for each cumulative grade-tonnage curve was based on the number of mines operating in that country or deposit type in Therefore the original cumulative grade-tonnage curves were essentially smoothed to produce the modified curves (several examples are shown in the supplementary information).
Mineral deposit grade and tonnage models and numbers-ofundiscovered deposits estimates provide the fundamental means of translating geologists ’ resource assessments into a language that. Initially, probability relations were univariate, primarily lognormal and binomial.
More recently, probability relations have been bivariate (deposit tonnage and grade) and multivariate (deposit tonnage, grade, depth, and intradeposit grade variance). The relationships of copper grade and tonnage differ depending on whether they are within deposit types where they are typically independent—IOCG, skarn, and VMS are exceptions, r = −57 ∗∗, − ∗∗, ∗∗ respectively— or across types where there is an inverse relationship that is significantly different than zero.
The grade and tonnage model of sediment-hosted Au (No. 26a) by D.L. Mosier, D.A. Singer, W.C. Bagby, and W.D. Menzie, is a revision to an earlier model by Bagby and others (). It is in response to the availability of grade and tonnage data for more deposits and to a new definition for a deposit, which combined or separated some deposits.
In order to develop long-term scenarios of copper supply and demand, a grade-tonnage density function model was developed for four major copper ore types.
The model was used to create cumulative grade-tonnage curves, representing 1, million metric tons (Mt) of mineable copper. Successful mineral exploration strategy requires identification of some of the risk sources and considering them in the decision-making process so that controllable risk can be reduced.
Risk is defined as chance of failure or loss. Exploration is an economic activity involving risk and uncertainty, so risk also must be defined in an economic context.
Risk reduction can be addressed in three. One possibility might be that higher grade deposits are always smaller than the lower grade, and that there has been a trend towards the mining of the larger deposits.
There would then be a tendency for average grades to decline. To test that hypothesis Fig. 8 relates percentage copper content to the tonnage of ore for porphyry copper. Types of copper deposits: Determining value. As mentioned, there are many factors to look at when determining the value of a copper deposit.
Among other things, companies must consider grade. In addition, there is a further kt U 3 O 8 in deposits reported in the Red Book but with no ore tonnage and grade data — suggesting global U resources of at le kt U 3 O 8 (or ~ 41% higher than the Red Book estimate of kt U 3 O 8).
Download: Download full-size image; Fig. 1. Reported economic uranium resources by. Fig. 4 presents a matrix of the 12 risk categories for the top 40 deposits by tonnage. The top 40 deposits account for approximately million tonnes (Mt) of copper metal, or approximately 20 years on current consumption rates (Elshkaki et al., ).
Fig. 3, Fig. 4 both show that virtually all of the undeveloped copper deposits in the.All the modifications of Taylor's rule use the same general relationship, and just revise the variables.
D.A. Singer, W.D. Menzie and K.R. Long revised Taylor's rule inbased on a data set of 41 open pit gold-silver mines. Their model found that appropriate rates for open pit gold-silver mines should be significantly higher than what.